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  • al-Mamlakat al-Miṣrīya
  • Königreich Ägypten
  • 1922 – 1953'''
  • Al-Mamlakah al-Misriyyah
  • Kingdom of Egypt
  • Al-Mamlakah al-Miṣrayyah

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المملكة المصرية

Egypt

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  Summary  

The Kingdom of Egypt , was the independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the recognition of Egyptian independence by the United Kingdom. The legal status of Egypt had hitherto been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, saw his title changed to King.

The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country. Throughout the kingdom's existence, Sudan was formally united with Egypt, however, actual Egyptian authority in Sudan was largely nominal, due to Britain's role as the dominant power in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party, a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party , and the Muslim Brotherhood , which eventually became a potent political and religious force.

King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by Italy's recent invasion of Abyssinia, he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except in the Suez Canal Zone .

The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948-1949 Palestine War, led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 by the Free Officers Movement. Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II. In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt was established. The legal status of Sudan was only resolved in 1954, when Egypt and Britain agreed that it should be granted independence in 1956.

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Whole or part of the information contained in this card come from the Wikipedia article "Royaume d'Égypte", licensed under CC-BY-SA full list of contributors here.