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Rudolph Giuliani (1944)

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  Summary  

Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani KBE is an American lawyer, businessman, and politician from New York. He served as Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001.

A Democrat and Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani served in the United States Attorney's Office, for the Southern District of New York, eventually becoming U.S. Attorney. He prosecuted a number of high-profile cases, including ones against organized crime and Wall Street financiers.

Giuliani served two terms as Mayor of New York City, having run on the Republican and Liberal lines. He was credited with initiating improvements and with a reduction in crime pressing the city's quality of life initiatives. He ran for the United States Senate in 2000 but withdrew due to being diagnosed with prostate cancer and revelations about his personal life. Giuliani gained international attention for his leadership during and after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. For those actions, he received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 2002.

After leaving office as mayor, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners, a security consulting business; acquired Giuliani Capital Advisors , an investment banking firm; and joined the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm, which changed its name when he became a partner. Giuliani ran for the Republican Party nomination in the 2008 United States presidential election. After leading in national polls for much of 2007, his candidacy faltered late in that year; he rated poorly in the caucuses and primaries of January 2008 and withdrew from the race. Giuliani considered running for both Governor and Senator in 2010, but decided not to run and remain active in his business career. Giuliani was considering a run in the 2012 presidential election, but decided not to run.

  Biography  

 early life
Rudolph Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981) and Helen (née D'Avanzo; 1909–2002), both first-generation Americans, children of Italian immigrants. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Harold Giuliani had trouble holding a job and had been convicted of felony assault and robbery and served time in Sing Sing; after his release he served as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn.

Early in life, Rudy Giuliani developed a lateral lisp which he still has to this day. In 1951, when Giuliani was seven, his family moved from Brooklyn to Garden City South, where he attended the local Catholic school, St. Anne's. Later, he commuted back to Brooklyn to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961 with an 85 percent average.

Giuliani attended Manhattan College in Riverdale, Bronx, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy. There he considered becoming a priest, after having studied theology for four years in college.
Giuliani was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity, and was active in shaping its direction. He graduated in 1965. Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead attending New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made law review and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor in 1968.

Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He has stated that he admires the Kennedy family, and volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a Democratic party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s, and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972.

 personal life
 Marriages and family

Giuliani has been married three times. On October 26, 1968, soon after he graduated from law school, he married his second cousin Regina Peruggi, whom Giuliani had known since childhood. In the mid-70s the marriage was in trouble and in 1975 they agreed to a trial separation. Peruggi did not accompany him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's Office. Giuliani met local television personality Donna Hanover sometime in 1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. Giuliani filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982. The Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was ended in two ways: a civil divorce was issued by the end of 1982, while a Roman Catholic church annulment of the Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was granted at the end of 1983, according to Giuliani, because he discovered that he and his wife were second cousins, rather than third cousins and they did not have the Church dispensation thus needed.
Giuliani and Peruggi did not have any children.

Giuliani and Hanover then married in a Catholic ceremony at St. Monica's Church in New York on April 15, 1984. They had two children, son Andrew Harold and daughter Caroline . Andrew first became a familiar sight by misbehaving at Giuliani's first mayoral inauguration, then with his father at New York Yankees games, of whom Rudy Giuliani is an enthusiastic fan. Andrew became an accomplished junior golfer, although he was later kicked off the golf team at Duke University on the grounds of misbehavior.

Beginning in 1996, Giuliani and Hanover's public relationship became distant, with Hanover appearing at few public events. There were reports that Hanover was aware of her husband's personal conduct as early as 1995. On Father's Day Giuliani had told reporters that he was returning to Gracie Mansion to play ball with Andrew, but instead went to City Hall, to a basement suite with his press secretary. Three hours later, Hanover, angered, appeared at City Hall; a mayoral aide prevented her from entering the suite. In 1997, a Vanity Fair article reported that Giuliani had a romantic relationship with Cristyne Ford Lategano, the mayor's communications director. The mayor and Lategano denied the allegations.

Still married to Hanover, Giuliani met Judith Nathan, a twice-divorced sales manager for a pharmaceutical company, in May 1999 at Club Macanudo, an Upper East Side cigar bar; he took the initiative in forming an ongoing relationship that was kept secret for almost a year. Beginning in summer 1999, costs for his New York Police Department security detail during weekend visits to her in Southampton, New York were charged to obscure city agencies. In early 2000, Nathan began getting city-provided chauffeur services from the police department.

By March 2000, Giuliani had stopped wearing his wedding ring, and his and Nathan's appearances together at functions and events became publicly visible but not mentioned in the press. In early May 2000, the New York Daily News and then the New York Post broke news of Giuliani's relationship with Nathan. Giuliani first publicly acknowledged her on May 3, 2000, stating that Nathan was his "very good friend".

On May 10, 2000, Giuliani called a press conference to announce that he intended to separate from Hanover. Hanover, however, had not been told about his plans before his press conference, an omission for which Giuliani was widely criticized. Giuliani now went on to praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman", and said about his marriage with Hanover, that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown to live independent and separate lives". Hours later Hanover said, "I had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because of his relationship with one staff member", a reference to Lategano. Giuliani, Hanover and Nathan appeared on the cover of People in the aftermath.

Giuliani moved out of Gracie Mansion and into a gay couple's apartment. Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in October 2000, and a public battle broke out between their representatives. Nathan was barred by court order from entering Gracie Mansion or meeting his children before the divorce was final.

In May 2001, Giuliani's attorney revealed (with the mayor's approval) that Giuliani was impotent due to his prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and radiation all by yourself," Giuliani said. "You need people to help you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith Nathan." Giuliani argued in a court case that he aimed to introduce Nathan to his children on Father's Day, 2001, and that Hanover had prevented this visit. Giuliani and Hanover finally settled their acrimonious divorce case in July 2002, after his mayoralty had ended, with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6.8 million settlement and granting her custody of their children. Giuliani subsequently married Nathan on May 24, 2003, and thus gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. It was also Nathan's third marriage after two prior divorces.

By March 2007, The New York Times and the New York Daily News reported that Giuliani had become estranged from both his son Andrew and his daughter Caroline, missing major events in their lives, such as graduations, and sometimes going long stretches without talking to them, and that neither of them was taking part in his presidential campaign. Caroline uses her mother's surname, Hanover, rather than Giuliani's, and according to reports, she did not inform Giuliani when she was accepted to Harvard. She also linked her personal Facebook page for a while to a page related to the campaign of Democratic presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama.

On August 4, 2010, his daughter Caroline was arrested and charged with petty larceny after allegedly shoplifting around one hundred dollars in cosmetics from a Sephora store near her mother Donna Hanover's Upper East Side home.

 Prostate cancer
Nineteen years after Giuliani's father died at age 73 in April 1981 of prostate cancer at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Giuliani was diagnosed at age 55 in April 2000 with prostate cancer on prostate biopsy after an elevated screening PSA. Giuliani chose a combination prostate cancer treatment consisting of four months of neoadjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy, then low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy with permanent implantation of ninety TheraSeed radioactive palladium-103 seeds in his prostate in September 2000, followed two months later by five weeks of fifteen-minute, five-days-a-week external beam radiotherapy at Mount Sinai Medical Center, with five months of adjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy.

 Religion and beliefs
Giuliani has declined to comment publicly on his religious practice and beliefs, although he identifies religion as an important part of his life. When asked if he is a practicing Catholic, Giuliani answered, "My religious affiliation, my religious practices and the degree to which I am a good or not-so-good Catholic, I prefer to leave to the priests."

politics
Before 2008 election


Since leaving office as Mayor, Giuliani has remained politically active by campaigning for Republican candidates for political offices at all levels. He was a speaker at the 2004 Republican National Convention, where he endorsed President George W. Bush for re-election by recalling that immediately after the World Trade Center towers fell,

Without really thinking, based on just emotion, spontaneous, I grabbed the arm of then-Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, and I said to him, 'Bernie, thank God George Bush is our president'.

Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions America to help elect Republicans candidates across the nation.

After campaigning on Bush's behalf in the 2004 election, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security after Tom Ridge's resignation. When suggestions were made that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination, information about Kerik's past– most notably, that he had ties to organized crime, had been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien as a domestic servant– became known.

2008 presidential campaign


In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee toward a run for President of the United States in 2008. In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live that he was indeed running.

Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support among the Republican candidates. Throughout most of 2007 he was the leader in most nationwide opinion polling among Republicans. Original front-runner Senator John McCain had faded, and most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only former Senator Fred Thompson and former Governor Mitt Romney showing greater support in some per-state Republican polls. On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an endorsement from evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson. This was viewed by political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of his positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights.

Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and December 2007, in which Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to or recommended for several top positions, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges; the media reported that while Mayor of New York, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair ; and several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani being in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. Giuliani's national poll numbers began steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later, multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states was seen at risk.


Despite his strategy, Giuliani did compete to a substantial extent in the January 8, 2008 New Hampshire primary, but finished a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote. Similar poor results continued in other early contests, as Giuliani's staff went without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January Florida Republican primary. The shift of the electorate's focus from national security to the state of the economy also hurt Giuliani, as did the resurgence of McCain's similarly themed campaign. On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain and Romney. Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming large Super Tuesday states, including that of his home New York, Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain.

Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears, and in June 2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part of the proceeds go towards his campaign. During the 2008 Republican National Convention, Giuliani gave a prime-time speech that praised McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin, while criticizing Democratic nominee Barack Obama. He cited Palin's executive experience as a mayor and governor and belittled Obama's lack of same, and his remarks were met with wild applause from the delegates. Giuliani continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the remainder of McCain's eventually unsuccessful campaign.

After 2008 election


Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani's "high appearance fees dropped like a stone." He returned to work at both Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani. Giuliani explored hosting a syndicated radio show, and was reported to be in talks with Westwood One about replacing Bill O'Reilly before that position went to Fred Thompson (another unsuccessful '08 GOP Presidential primary candidate). During the March 2009 AIG bonus payments controversy, Giuliani called for U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner to step down and said that the Obama administration lacked executive competence in dealing with the ongoing financial crisis.

Giuliani said his political career was not necessarily over, and did not rule out a 2010 New York gubernatorial or 2012 presidential bid. A November 2008 Siena College poll indicated that although Governor David Paterson – promoted to the office via the Eliot Spitzer prostitution scandal a year before – was popular among New Yorkers, he would have just a slight lead over Giuliani in a hypothetical matchup. By February 2009, after the prolonged Senate appointment process, a Siena College poll indicated that Paterson was losing popularity among New Yorkers, and showed Giuliani with a fifteen point lead in the hypothetical contest. In January 2009, Giuliani said he would not decide on a gubernatorial run for another six to eight months, adding that he thought it would not be fair to the governor to start campaigning early while the governor tries to focus on his job. Giuliani worked to retire his presidential campaign debt, but by the end of March 2009 it was still $2.4 million in arrears, the largest such remaining amount for any of the 2008 contenders. In April 2009, Giuliani strongly opposed Paterson's announced push for same-sex marriage in New York and said it would likely cause a backlash that could put Republicans in statewide office in 2010. By late August 2009 there were still conflicting reports about whether Giuliani was likely to run.

On November 19, 2009, Giuliani decided he would not run for Governor, but rather would consider a run in the U.S. Senate special election in 2010 against Kirsten Gillibrand. The likelihood that he would end up facing the polling-stronger Andrew Cuomo rather than Paterson factored into the decision against a gubernatorial run. On December 23, 2009, Giuliani announced that he would not seek the Senate seat in question, or any office in 2010, saying "The main reason has to do with my two enterprises: Bracewell & Giuliani and Giuliani Partners. I'm very busy in both." The decisions signaled a possible end to Giuliani's political career.

As of early 2010, Giuliani continues to appear frequently as a television political commentator. He and his viewpoints have been criticized by Markos Moulitsas and other liberal bloggers. In late October 2010, Giuliani threw his support to former Maryland governor Bob Ehrlich in the Maryland Governor's race, calling Ehrlich one of the best governors of all time.

As 2011 began, Giuliani was seriously considering a run for the Republican nomination in the United States presidential election, 2012. Many political observers, and some of Giuliani's 2008 staff, were reportedly skeptical that Giuliani would actually do this.

On October 11, 2011, Giuliani announced that he was not running for president. According to Kevin Law, the Director of the Long Island Association, Giuliani believed that "As a moderate, he thought it was a pretty significant challenge. He said it's tough to be a moderate and succeed in GOP primaries," Giuliani said "If it's too late for Chris Christie, it's too late for me,".

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  • Novel
  • Leadership
    407 p.
    2002

    ISBN : 9780786868414

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Whole or part of the information contained in this card come from the Wikipedia article "Rudy Giuliani", licensed under CC-BY-SA full list of contributors here.